Your Top 10 'must-haves'!

As we transition into Fall or back to school, it's a good idea to give the immune system a little extra support! 

Your Top 10 'must-haves' to keep everyone in the family healthy during the back-to-school and Fall season!

  1. Organic Defense Hand Spray: for every lunch box including your own!
  2. Organic Cocoa Complex: mood-boosting B Vitamins (use it in your morning smoothie, add it to oatmeal, or add to hot almond milk for a 'cup of calm'.)
  3. Zen Diffuser and Night Time Aromatherapy Blend: for every room in the house (good night's sleep for everyone!)
  4. Remedies to Roll: (Study for focus/homework, Travel for the bus and traffic jams, Relaxation for the end of the day...)
  5. Bee Lovely Busy Bee Balm: a cure-all for dry lips, cuts and scrapes, cracked heels, dry elbows, nail balm - anything and everything!
  6. Arnica Salve: soothes sore muscles (every athlete should have this in their gym bag and every MOM and DAD needs it as well!)
  7. Inner Strength Tea: boosts your natural defenses.
  8. Wild Rose Hand Cream: wildly good for hands and SUCH a pretty package - it will bring a smile to your face each time you use it!
  9. Vitality Tea: Siberian ginseng and schisandra (brew it, then add to Knudsen's organic cherry juice and drink it over ice for a great recovery drink after sports and exertion...)
  10. Lavender Essential Oil: so many great first-aid uses - every household should have a bottle!


Best, 

Kaytea

Thanks to Jane Wotton for this lovely text! 

Article Share!

Food scarcity, neuroadaptations, and the pathogenic potential of dieting in an unnatural ecology: Binge eating and drug abuse

Kenneth D. Carr ⁎ Departments of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, Millhauser Laboratories, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Ave., New York, NY 10016, US

Article history:

Received 28 March 2011 Accepted 19 April 2011

Keywords:

Food restriction Drug abuse Binge eating Sucrose

AMPA receptors

1. Introduction

In recent years there has been interest in the possible therapeutic use of controlled caloric restriction to induce the physiological and behavioral adaptations which accompany food scarcity in the wild. These adaptive responses are diverse and are generally aimed at conserving energy, prolonging survival, and promoting foraging and procurement of food. Consequently, caloric restriction has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, increase resistance to neurotoxins, slow cognitive decline with age, and increase lifespan in many species (e.g., [1–3]). In addition, restricted feeding has been reported to exert mood- elevating and analgesic effects in humans [4], antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in animal models [5–8], and increase incentive motivational responses in humans and rodents [9–13]. Neurophysiolog- ical correlates of the robust behavioral phenotype of the food-restricted subject were recently investigated using c-fos immunohistochemistry. Chronically food-restricted rats exposed to a nonthreatening novel environment displayed increased activation throughout a network of structures involved in antidepressant efficacy and incentive motivation, including ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and the piriform, anterior cingulate, and secondary motor cortices (Antoine, Austin, Stone and Carr, in preparation).

⁎ Tel.: +1 212 263 5749; fax: +1 212 263 5591. E-mail address: Kenneth.Carr@nyumc.org.

0031-9384/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.04.023

abstract

In the laboratory, food restriction has been shown to induce neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitry which are likely to be among those that facilitate survival during periods of food scarcity in the wild. However, the upregulation of mechanisms that promote foraging and reward-related learning may pose a hazard when food restriction is self-imposed in an ecology of abundant appetitive rewards. For example, episodes of loss of control during weight-loss dieting, use of drugs with addictive potential as diet aids, and alternating fasting with alcohol consumption in order to avoid weight gain, may induce synaptic plasticity that increases the risk of enduring maladaptive reward-directed behavior. In the present mini-review, representative basic research findings are outlined which indicate that food restriction alters the function of mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons, potentiates cellular and behavioral responses to D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptor stimulation, and increases stimulus-induced synaptic insertion of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens. Possible mechanistic un- derpinnings of increased drug reward magnitude, drug-seeking, and binge intake of sucrose in food-restricted animal subjects are discussed and possible implications for human weight-loss dieting are considered.

© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

While controlled caloric restriction may be sustainable and beneficial when embedded within a supportive cognitive or social framework, weight-loss dieting in an ecology of abundant appetitive rewards has the potential to engender maladaptive compulsive behavior. Restrained eating often leads to loss of control, binging, and counterproductive weight gain [14–17], and severe dieting is a risk factor for binge pathology [18]. Moreover, associations between food restriction, binge pathology, and substance abuse have been observed in clinical populations [19,20], college students [21] and, most recently, high school students [22,23]. The deliberate pairing of food restriction and drugs of abuse is not an uncommon practice, as in the use of tobacco and psychostimulants for appetite suppression [24,25] or the increasingly popular “drunkorexia” among college-age women (i.e., fasting during the day in order to binge drink at night without weight gain) [26]. In light of the shared neural substrates of ingestive behavior and drug abuse [27–30], and the neuroadaptations induced by food restriction to be described below, the neuroplastic changes which underlie drug addiction [31] may develop in response to supranormally rewarding foods, and occur more readily in response to drugs, if subjects are repeatedly exposed during food restriction.

2. Early behavioral and microdialysis studies

In the mid-1980s Bart Hoebel and colleagues developed an in vivo microdialysis system which enabled sampling of extracellular fluid in multiple small regions of rat brain [32]. Implementing this technical advance they demonstrated that systemically adminis- tered d-amphetamine increased extracellular DA concentrations [33],as did an episode of feeding in food-restricted rats, and electrical stimulation delivered via lateral hypothalamic electrodes in sites that supported feeding and self-stimulation [34]. These findings not only supported the emerging concept of a shared neural substrate for rewarding effects of food and drugs, but also provided insight into the threshold-lowering effects of sweet taste [35] and drugs of abuse [36,37] on lateral hypothalamic self-stimulation. Furthermore, they offered a potential window into the well-established finding that food restriction increases the oral and intravenous self-administration of a wide variety of abused drugs [38,39]. Consequently, in 1995 Hoebel, with Pothos and Creese [40], demonstrated that rats subjected to a relatively severe food restriction regimen (20–30% loss of body weight within 7–10 days) displayed basal extracellular DA concentrations in NAc that were ~50% lower than in AL rats. Further, although the locomotor-activating effect of d-amphetamine, and intake and behav- ioral excitement triggered by an offered meal, were greater in FR than AL rats, the increase in NAc extracellular DA produced by d-amphetamine, morphine, and food were all blunted in FR relative to AL subjects. This set of findings raised a number of questions which were addressed in a series of studies conducted in our laboratory. In these studies, a FR protocol was used in which the daily food allotment of mature male rats was decreased to about 50% of AL intake until body weight declined by 20% (~2 weeks); from this point onward, daily feeding was titrated to clamp body weight at the new value, never exceeding 70% of the daily caloric intake of age-matched AL control subjects. Experimental testing, whether behavioral or biochemical, was initiated once body weight had stabilized at the decreased level for at least one week.

3. Food restriction may decrease basal dopamine activity but increases drug reward magnitude and evoked fos expression in dopamine terminal fields

To evaluate drug reward magnitude in previously drug-naïve rats, a learning-free measure was used in which subjects self-administered brief trains of reinforcing lateral hypothalamic electrical stimulation, with the available brain stimulation frequency being varied system- atically over trials. In this paradigm, experimenter-administered drugs of abuse produce a leftward shift in the curve that relates rate of reinforcement to brain stimulation frequency, and the extent of this shift is taken as the measure of drug reward magnitude. An array of abused drugs, including d-amphetamine and cocaine, produced greater dose-related leftward shifts in the curves of FR relative to AL subjects whether the drugs were administered systemically, intracer- ebroventricularly, or directly by microinjection into NAc [41–43] . When tested in a progressive ratio protocol, in which the number of lever press responses required to obtain each 1-sec train of reinforcing brain stimulation was progressively increased over the course of each series, d-amphetamine produced a 3-fold greater increase in the amount of work FR rats performed as compared to AL rats [44]. The enhanced behavioral responsiveness of FR subjects extended to the locomotor-activating effects of drugs injected systemically, intracer- ebroventricularly, and directly into NAc [41,43,45], as well as to drug- free wheel-running in a protocol in which subjects had access to a wheel outside of the home cage for a 1-h period each day [46].

The findings of the Hoebel lab, indicating that both basal and stimulated DA release in NAc are diminished in FR subjects were not observed by Rouge-Pont and coworkers [47] in a protocol of mild and brief FR (body weight decreased by 10% with experiments conducted during the second week) in which there was no reported change in NAc basal extracellular DA concentration but an enhanced response to cocaine challenge. In a protocol more similar to that of the Hoebel group, Cadoni and colleagues observed that cocaine and d-amphetamine challenge produced greater elevations of extracellular DA concentration in the NAc core, but not shell, of FR subjects [48]. However, a number of findings obtained with the protocol used in our laboratory are consistent with decreased basal DA neuronal activity. For example, FR subjects

displayed decreased levels of preprodynorphin and preprotachykinin mRNA in NAc [49]; these neuropeptides are expressed in D-1 DA receptor expressing medium spiny neurons and levels are positively regulated via D-1 DA receptor signaling. FR subjects also displayed decreased NAc tyrosine hydroxylation following administration of a DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, suggesting decreased DA synthetic activity [50]. In response to d-amphetamine challenge, FR subjects displayed decreased NAc phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase on Ser40, suggesting increased feedback inhibition of DA synthesis [50]. FR subjects also displayed a significant decrease in the NAc Vmax for DA uptake without change in the Km [51], which is consonant with reduced surface presence of the DA transporter—a possible compensatory adaptation to decreased release. Most recently, the responsiveness of VTA DA neurons to excitatory glutamate input after FR were examined using voltage-clamp recording in midbrain slices, and displayed a 50% decrease in EPSC amplitude [52]. Yet, despite these indications of dampened DA neuronal activity during FR, cellular activation in DA terminal fields in response to a challenge dose of d-amphetamine, as determined by fos-immunostaining, paralleled the behavioral findings with greater effects in FR than AL subjects [53]. Importantly, the same result was obtained when subjects were challenged with a direct D-1 DA receptor agonist, SKF-82958 [45], suggesting that the enhanced response of FR subjects to drugs of abuse could be mediated in whole or part by an upregulation of postsynaptic receptor signaling.

Behavioral studies conducted with direct DA receptor agonists have been supportive of upregulated receptor function. D-1 DA receptor agonist administration via the systemic, intracerebroventri- cular, and intra-NAc routes has produced stronger locomotor re- sponses and greater reward-potentiating effects in the LHSS protocol in FR than in AL rats [43,45,54]. Administration of the D-2/3 receptor agonist, quinpirole, via the systemic and intracerebroventricular route produced greater locomotor-activating effects in FR than in AL rats. In the LHSS protocol, quinpirole decreases the stimulation frequency threshold for initiation of lever pressing. On this measure, FR subjects displayed an enhanced response when quinpirole was administered systemically and directly into NAc [43,54]. However, given that: (1) the rewarding and cellular activating effects of D-1 DA receptor stimulation were consistently and markedly greater in FR than AL subjects, and (2) the enhanced rewarding effect of d-amphetamine microinjected in NAc was reversed by a low dose of the D-1 DA receptor antagonist SCH-23390 [43], and (3) D-1 DA receptor-linked signaling cascades are involved in the synaptic plasticity which underlies the transition from drug use to addiction [31,55], our subsequent studies of intracellular signaling and gene expression focused more narrowly on events downstream of D-1 DA receptor stimulation.

4. Upregulated cellular responses to D-1 DA receptor stimulation: candidate mechanisms of increased drug reward sensitivity and reward-related learning

Acute challenge with the D-1 DA receptor agonist, SKF-82958, produced greater phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 MAP kinase and the downstream nuclear transcription factor CREB, and increased pre- prodynorphin and preprotachykinin gene expression in NAc of FR relative to AL rats [56,57]. In addition, FR subjects displayed increased phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit and CaMK II [57]. The increased activation of ERK 1/2, CaMK II and CREB were shown to be NMDA receptor-dependent in as much as they were blocked by pretreatment with the noncompetitive antagonist, MK-801. The increased activation of CREB and fos expression were also blocked by pretreatment with the ERK 1/2 MAP kinase inhibitor, SL-327 [57,58]. SL-327 did not, however, diminish the acute rewarding or locomotor-activating effects of SKF-82958 and d-amphetamine. These results support the hypothesized upregulation of NAc D-1 DA receptor function in FR rats but also suggest that key intracellular responses

K.D. Carr / Physiology & Behavior 104 (2011) 162–167    163

164    K.D. Carr / Physiology & Behavior 104 (2011) 162–167

may be dependent upon D-1 receptor-mediated regulation of NMDA receptor function. In addition, increased ERK 1/2 signaling and downstream effects, including CREB phosphorylation, appear unlikely to regulate the acute behavioral response to drug administration.

The increased stimulation-induced MAP kinase signaling was nevertheless of interest given the general involvement of ERK 1/2 in synaptic plasticity [59,60] and its specific involvement, within NAc, in the acquisition [61], expression and reconsolidation [62] of drug- reinforced conditioned place preference (CPP). The CPP paradigm potentially provides insight into functional components of drug responsiveness and addiction that may be of greater clinical importance than acute responsiveness to drug challenge in otherwise drug naïve subjects. CPP offers an opportunity to assess drug- reinforced associative learning, resistance to extinction, and rein- statement of an extinguished drug-seeking response. Consequently, we have recently observed that FR subjects have a lower threshold reinforcing dose, confirming findings previously reported by several labs [63–65]. FR rats are also more resistant to extinction of a cocaine- reinforced CPP, and more responsive to the reinstating effect of a priming dose of cocaine ([66]; Zheng, Cabeza de Vaca and Carr, in preparation). Further, if NAc is examined immediately after the first pairing of cocaine with a compartment of the CPP apparatus, FR subjects display greater activation of ERK 1/2 than do AL subjects. Also of interest is an increased phosphorylation of the glutamate AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit on Ser845, which was not seen in AL rats receiving cocaine, nor in FR rats receiving saline during their first conditioning session.

AMPA receptors are co-expressed with DA receptors in striatal neurons [67,68] and mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission [69,70]. Phosphorylation of GluR1 on Ser845 by D-1 receptor- regulated cAMP or NMDA receptor-regulated cGMP pathways enhances AMPA currents and facilitates rapid insertion into the postsynapse [71–75], resulting in synaptic strengthening [70,76,77]. Thus, phosphorylation of GluR1 on Ser845 can transiently increase neuronal excitability and/or serve as the first step in a two-step process whereby cytoplasmic AMPA receptors are trafficked to the synaptic membrane as the mechanistic underpinning of experience- dependent behavioral plasticity [78]. Given our prior evidence of increased D-1 and NMDA receptor-dependent intracellular signaling in NAc of FR subjects, we challenged AL and FR rats with an acute injection of SKF-82958 and 20-min later assessed GluR1 phosphor- ylation in NAc [79]. Both diet groups displayed greater phosphory- lation of GluR1 on Ser845, relative to vehicle-treated controls, but the response was greater in FR subjects. This result suggests that the NAc GluR1 phosphorylation seen in FR rats following their first CPP conditioning session with cocaine was a consequence of upregulated D-1 DA receptor signaling and may reflect the initial step in the synaptic plasticity underlying increased cocaine-reinforced associa- tive learning.

5. Similar effects of drugs and sucrose on AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit phosphorylation

Sucrose, by way of orosensory [80,81] and postingestive [82] signaling, leads to increased extracellular DA concentrations in NAc [83,84]. Given the proposal that refined sugars, such as sucrose, generate a supranormal reward signal in brain (e.g., [85]), and their intermittent intake, alternated with periods of total food deprivation produces addiction-like behavior [86], we also tested whether brief intake of sucrose could increase NAc GluR1 phosphorylation in a manner similar to cocaine and SKF-82958. AL and FR rats were trained to drink 10% sucrose during a brief access period on 4 occasions spaced several days apart. To equalize volume ingested between diet groups (~12 ml), FR rats had access for 5-min and AL rats had access for 8-min on the final occasion, immediately after which, brains were obtained for biochemical assay. Relative to AL and FR rats that only

had access to tap water, FR rats that ingested sucrose displayed increased phosphorylation of GluR1 on Ser845 while AL rats that ingested sucrose did not. Not only does this finding represent a parallel between sucrose, cocaine, and SKF-82958, but the food restriction-dependency of the effect in all three cases could be a clue to the mechanistic basis of increased drug self-administration in FR subjects, and the importance of food restriction or deprivation in the genesis of binge eating in animal models [86–88] and human patients [18]. To test whether AMPA receptors contribute to the acute rewarding effect of D-1 DA receptor stimulation in FR subjects, SKF82958 was microinjected into NAc shell with and without 1-NA- spermine, an antagonist of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. 1-NA- spermine decreased the rewarding effect of SKF82958 in FR but not AL rats, suggesting that increased AMPA receptor function contributes to the enhanced behavioral response of FR rats to acute drug challenge.

6. DA-mediated “overlearning” in response to palatable food and drugs during food restriction?

There is evidence that mechanisms involved in synaptic plasticity that are upregulated by FR are not exclusively postsynaptic. Specifically, FR may sustain the function of NAc shell DA release as a mediator of reward-related learning. Ventral tegmental DA neuronal burst firing has been characterized as a “teaching signal” [89], and NAc convergence of DA with glutamate-coded signals arising from hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex [90,91], regulate NAc neuronal activity (e.g., [92]) and may bind rewarding events to context, cues and instrumental responses by inducing neuroplastic changes in NAc microcircuitry [31,93–95]. When rats are presented with a highly palatable food for the first time, it triggers DA release in the NAc shell [96,97]. When subjects with previous exposure to that food are presented with it again, the NAc shell DA response is blunted despite avid consumption [97,98]. If subjects have learned a maze running task required to gain access to the food, the NAc shell DA response is lost, although the food is consumed [97]. Thus, an important difference between natural reward and drugs of abuse, is that the latter retain their ability to produce a robust DA response in NAc shell with each administration [99]. Consequently, drug addiction has been proposed to be a case of “overlearning” based on repetitive activation of DA-dependent cellular responses in NAc shell which mediate synaptic plasticity and reward-related learning [31]. This overlearning would have the effect of strengthening NAc neuronal ensembles dedicated to drug- seeking and drug-taking relative to ensembles dedicated to other, natural, forms of reward-directed behavior [100]. Thus, it is of interest that when subjects are food-deprived, palatable food retains its ability to release DA in NAc shell despite the subject's familiarity with it [98], rendering food more “drug-like” in this regard. Moreover, in the food- deprived subject this presentation of familiar palatable food retains its ability to activate intracellular signaling pathways downstream of the D-1 DA receptor, leading to phosphorylation of both the NMDA NR1 and AMPA receptor GluR1 subunits [101]. Thus, in two well developed preclinical models of binge eating disorder, repeated cycles of food restriction or deprivation combined with periodic access to highly palatable food are necessary conditions for the emergence of binge eating behavior [86–88,102]. In the model developed in the Hoebel laboratory [103,104], it proved essential that 12-h periods of access to chow plus sucrose be alternated with 12-h periods of total food deprivation in order for binge-like intake of sucrose to develop over days; full-time access to chow and sucrose did not lead to binging. Relating this phenomenon back to NAc DA release as a teaching signal, Hoebel with Avena and Rada demonstrated that in their sucrose-binge eating protocol, sucrose retained its ability to release DA in NAc shell. Moreover, if subjects were chronically food-restricted on the chow component of their diet such that body weight declined by 15%, the DA response to sucrose during the sucrose-binge protocol was further increased [105]. Thus, it seems likely that for sucrose and drugs of abuse, a sustained ability to release DA in NAc shell, in conjunction with postsynaptic neuroadaptations, increases synaptic plasticity and strengthens the corresponding reward-directed behavior.

7. Synaptic insertion of AMPA receptors: a new focus in the exploration of acute and enduring effects of food restriction on reward-directed behavior

It was recently observed that brief intake of sucrose by AL rats increased GluR1 abundance in the NAc postsynaptic density—a finding indicated by subcellular fractionation and Western analysis, and then confirmed by electron microscopy (Tukey, Ferreira, Antoine, Ninan, Cabeza de Vaca, Hartner, Goffer, Guarini, Marzan, Mahajan, Carr, Aoki, and Ziff, under review). In a follow-up study, we investigated whether brief intake of sucrose during FR increases trafficking of AMPA receptors to the synaptic membrane in NAc [106]. Using a subcellular fractionation method it was determined that neither FR nor sucrose altered levels of GluR1 or GluR2 protein in the NAc whole cell preparation, suggesting no alteration in synthesis or degradation of these AMPAR subunits. However, in AL subjects, sucrose intake produced a modest but significant increase in GluR1, but not GluR2, abundance in the postsynaptic density fraction, which could be reflective of increased trafficking of GluR1 homomers or GluR1/GluR3 heteromers, both of which are relatively rare in NAc, but are Ca2+-permeable and increase neuronal excitability. In FR subjects, sucrose intake produced a pronounced increase in both GluR1 and GluR2 in the NAc postsynaptic density. Given that the majority of GluR1 in NAc is physically associated with GluR2 and most GluR2 that is not associated with GluR1 appears to represent partially assembled receptors [107], the most parsimonious interpretation of this finding is that sucrose intake during FR increased insertion of GluR1/GluR2 heteromers.

GluR1/GluR2 heteromers are trafficked to the synapse in an activity-dependent manner and mediate synaptic strengthening [70,108,109] and associative learning [109]. In cell culture, activity- dependent trafficking of GluR1/GluR2 heteromers has been shown to rapidly follow D-1 DA receptor stimulation and display NMDA and AMPA receptor-dependence [110]. This suggests a plausible connec- tion between our findings of upregulated D-1 receptor signaling, consequent increases in phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits, and the sucrose-induced insertion of GluR1- containing AMPA receptors in the NAc postsynaptic density of FR rats. Speculatively, sucrose-induced trafficking of AMPA receptors to the NAc postsynaptic density could be a key to the synaptic plasticity that underlies enduring changes in sucrose-directed behavior, including the disposition to binge. The plausibility of this speculation gains support from findings that withdrawal from chronic cocaine is associated with increased AMPA receptor surface expression in NAc [111,112], and the persistent craving and vulnerability to relapse in withdrawn subjects is dependent on glutamate release and AMPA receptors [112–114].

8. Concluding comment

The parallel between compulsive use of food and drugs has become a topic of interest and productive research [30,115]. Among the risk factors that may increase vulnerability to both are food restriction and the concomitant neuroadaptations which evolved to enable survival through alternating cycles of food scarcity and abundance. Weight-loss dieting amidst an abundance of supranor- mally rewarding foods and cues signaling their availability is likely to be stressful and inevitably lead to episodes of loss of control. Such episodes may be hazardous based on their enhanced capacity to induce neuroplastic changes, ingraining the corresponding behavior and, perhaps, contributing to the genesis of binge pathology. Unlike

food, drugs of abuse may not readily or necessarily be encountered by many individuals. Nevertheless, understanding modulatory effects of diet and body weight on functional components of the drug abuse and addiction process has potential to illuminate risk factors, preventa- tives and interventions. Moreover, there are the concrete instances in which food restriction and drug use are coupled, as in the use of stimulants to suppress appetite and the anorexia that is secondary to drug abuse, where understanding the nature and mechanisms of interaction may have implications for prevention and treatment. Results outlined above provide some examples of the beneficial cross- talk between behavioral neuroscience subfields focusing on drug addiction and ingestive behavior, and are consonant with the current concept that diverse forms of compulsive reward-directed behavior are rooted in common underlying CNS mechanisms, and that their decompartmentalization may facilitate research and development of crossover therapies [116].

Acknowledgments

Research, by the author, reviewed in this paper was supported by DA003956 from NIDA/NIH and a NARSAD Independent Investigator Award.

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The Intuitive Health Breakfast Challenge & NOW Sliding Scale Workshop!

I've been getting so excited about my upcoming Intuitive Health Breakfast Challenge and our upcoming EAL/Intuitive Health Workshop. 

First off the Breakfast Challenge starts Sunday, it's totally free and geared to introduce daily Intuitive Eating concepts with an emphasis on Breakfast (or at least one meal of your choosing per day). This is the first time I'm trying something like this and anyone who FULLY participates by taking a picture and sharing it with the group via instagram or on our private facebook page has a chance to win a Neal's Yard Gift Set. Learning, Sharing & Fun! Sign up here by midnight tomorrow, Wednesday!

If you would like to try one of Machel and my all day workshops we just opened up our July 23rd workshop on a sliding scale $25-$225 basis or whatever in between feels financially affordable to you right now. Our all day workshops price will go up drastically in the Fall. After looking at our curriculum and agenda for the day we'd like to offer this discount to help spread the word and also get more business owners, managers and support staff introduced to this work as we know it would help any team or business. Please pass this info on to any small business owners or groups that might be interested. To reserve a sliding scale spot simply email me here or visit my website for more information. 


Machel Jordan and Kaytea Hendricks will facilitate breaking through core beliefs, values, habits and thoughts that bind us to a less than abundant courageous life in an intensive full day workshop. Structured experiential processes facilitating break-through and lasting change will be woven into the day.  The day involves various interactive experiences including intuitive health coaching and on the ground horse activities to help move fear and scarcity out and courage and abundance in.
 

Fear and Scarcity Guest Blog from Machel Jordan

Greeting All! 

I'm very excited to share with you a guest blog from Machel Jordan of Reflect Reinvent. Machel goes into great detail on our upcoming workshops theme. If you have any questions about the work we do or why we are doing it, I think Machel answers a lot of those questions here. Enjoy! 
 

Guest Blog by Machel Jordan

Fear and scarcity - just looking at the words causes contraction. Let’s define the words.
 
Fear:  to expect or worry about (something bad or unpleasant)
 
Scarcity: a very small supply
 
Fear and scarcity thoughts and feelings occur for all of us at times. However; if fear and scarcity controls our judgment, this can have devastating affects on our quality of life. It becomes a barrier blocking us from abundance and the joy of living.
 
What if we had a choice about fear and scarcity controlling our life?
 
Believe it or not - we do.
 
Believe, it’s a key that leads to this basic principle:
Our beliefs, values, habits and thoughts control our feelings. Our feelings control our behaviors and actions. Our behaviors and actions control our results.
 
So what if we choose the opposite of fear and scarcity, which is courage and abundance? How can we breakthrough fear and scarcity to embrace the new possibility of courage and abundance?
 
Use the key – change our beliefs, values, habits and thoughts at the core. This can be done. Absolute honesty is required. Self-awareness - staying conscious in any given moment. Noticing: choices (even not making a choice is a choice). Lasting change only happens when we change our beliefs, values, habits and thoughts – but we have to authentically want the change. Cognitive Dissonance is part of the process and causes discomfort.
 
Would you like more core-changing principles?  Then join us on July 23, 2016 for a life changing experience – not a read more.
 
Machel Jordan and Kaytea Hendricks will facilitate breaking through core beliefs, values, habits and thoughts that bind us to a less than abundant courageous life in an intensive full day workshop. Structured experiential processes facilitating break-through and lasting change will be woven into the day.  The day involves various interactive experiences including intuitive health coaching and on the ground horse activities to help move fear and scarcity out and courage and abundance in.
 
 
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Research Share! Because Intuitive Eating is Research Based and we need to know more about it!

Article Share! Because Intuitive Eating is Research Based and we need to know! 

Hi all! I would like to share this research study with you all because I think it's important but mostly we all need to know the dieting is a form of disordered eating. Here is some of the research. 

Disordered eating, perfectionism, and food rules

Amanda Joelle Brown ⁎, Kortney M. Parman, Deirdre A. Rudat, Linda W. Craighead Emory University Psychological Center, 36 Eagle Row, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA

article info

Article history:

Received 17 September 2011 Received in revised form 25 April 2012 Accepted 31 May 2012 Available online 9 June 2012

Keywords:

Perfectionism Food rules Disordered eating

1. Introduction

The identification of factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of eating disorders has been the focus of significant research effort in recent years. The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) appears to involve a combination of genetic, familial, person- ality, developmental, and socio-cultural influences (Klein & Walsh, 2003). A strong relationship has been found between trait perfection- ism and disordered eating, but potential mediating variables affecting this relationship remain largely unknown (Bardone-Cone et al., 2007). One hypothesized mechanism at play in this relationship is adherence to rules regarding what, when, and how one must eat or not eat. Perfec- tionistic traits may lead individuals to adhere rigidly to such “food rules,” which, in turn, may increase vulnerability to developing eating disorder symptoms. This study aims to explore the role of food rules in understanding the relationship between perfectionism and disor- dered eating attitudes and behaviors.

The construct of perfectionism involves placing excessive empha- sis on organization and preciseness, holding idealistic personal expec- tations, critically self-evaluating when expectations are not met, and doubting the quality of personal accomplishments (Hewitt & Flett, 1991). Hewitt and colleagues (Hewitt, Flett, Turnbull-Donovan, & Mikail, 1991) propose that perfectionism has three dimensions: self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed. Self-oriented perfectionism involves critical self-scrutiny and holding to unrealistic,

⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 908 507 7209; fax: +1 404 727 1284. E-mail address: ajbrow9@emory.edu (A.J. Brown).

1471-0153/$ – see front matter © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2012.05.011

abstract

Clinically significant trait perfectionism is often characteristic of individuals exhibiting symptoms of eating disorders. The present study reports on a measure developed to assess the use of food rules and evaluates the hypothesis that adherence to food rules may be one mechanism through which trait perfectionism exac- erbates risk for developing eating disorder symptoms. Forty-eight female college students completed a bat- tery of questionnaires, and multiple regression analyses were used to test a mediational model. Results indicated that adherence to food rules mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and three indices of disordered eating in this sample. This relationship was specific to self-oriented perfectionism and did not hold for other-oriented or socially prescribed perfectionism. These findings may have implica- tions for designing early interventions for disordered eating and may be useful in tailoring treatment for individuals with disordered eating who also report high levels of perfectionism.

© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

self-imposed personal standards, whereas other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism are based on a need to achieve high stan- dards imposed by other people or by society at large (Hewitt, Flett, Besser, Sherry, & McGee, 2003). While some degree of adherence to personal and socially constructed standards of behavior is adaptive and healthy, perfectionistic tendencies become clinically relevant when high standards are pursued despite significant adverse conse- quences (Shafran, Cooper, & Fairburn, 2002).

Perfectionism has been identified as both a risk factor and a maintaining variable for disordered eating symptoms. In a prospective study, individuals with severe anorexia nervosa who scored highly on perfectionism at pretest had poorer prognoses, as indicated by assess- ments 5–10 years later (Bizeul, Sadowsky, & Rigaud, 2001). In a correla- tional study designed to investigate the relationship between eating disorders and both adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of perfection- ism, women in treatment for an eating disorder scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the maladaptive perfectionism factor (Ashby, Kottman, & Schoen, 1998). More recent findings suggest that this difference may be specific to self-oriented perfectionism (Castro- Fornieles et al., 2007); individuals with eating disorders appear to hold themselves to exceptionally high personal standards but may be less concerned about living up to socially prescribed ideals.

In Fairburn and colleagues’ influential transdiagnostic cognitive– behavioral theory of the development and maintenance of eating dis- orders (Fairburn, Cooper, & Shafran, 2003), over-evaluation of eating, weight, and shape interacts with perfectionistic standards for achieve- ment and self-control to drive the development and maintenance of eat- ing disorder symptoms. Fairburn (Fairburn, 2008) recently introduced a “clinical perfectionism” module into standard cognitive–behavioral therapy for eating disorders, which specifically addresses this dysfunc- tional scheme for self-evaluation.348    A.J. Brown et al. / Eating Behaviors 13 (2012) 347–353

While the relationship between perfectionism and disordered eat- ing behaviors is well-supported by the existing literature, the specific mechanisms by which perfectionism exerts its influence on eating pa- thology have yet to be identified. The pursuit of unrealistic standards regarding eating, weight, and shape may encourage the development of overly rigid food rules. To date, little empirical research has been conducted on the development of and adherence to food rules among individuals with eating disorders. The following section briefly reviews research related to food rules and disordered eating and sug- gests that food rules may mediate the relationship between perfec- tionism and eating disorder symptoms.

1.1. Food rules

Many individuals with AN, BN, and subclinical forms of disor- dered eating subscribe to personal food rules that can be quite rigid and restrictive (Eiber, Mirabel-Sarron, & Urdapilleta, 2005). For some, it is a matter of taking generally sound recommendations for healthy eating to the extreme. Others have received unhealthy mes- sages about food in the past and experience greater distortion in their thoughts about food as their disorder progresses. Many individ- uals with eating concerns avoid foods that either predispose them to binge eating or they consider unhealthy (Klein & Walsh, 2003). By denying themselves certain foods and only eating those foods con- sidered to be safe, the food intake of individuals with eating concerns can be very restrictive and lacking in variety and nutrients, which may lead to a state of physiological deprivation and heightened risk for binge eating (Eiber et al., 2005; Mathes, Brownley, Mo, & Bulik, 2009). Food rules specifically, and rigid thought patterns about food more generally, are associated with heightened emotion- al responsiveness and cognitive disruption, including excessive fo- cusing on food as well as eating in excess, which further compound eating concerns (Polivy, 1996).

Self-imposed food rules may increase preoccupation with “for- bidden” foods, setting the stage for more rigid adherence to these rules in an effort to maintain self-control and increasing the likeli- hood of binge eating when the temptation to consume “off-limits” foods becomes too strong (Lingswiler, Crowther, & Stephens, 1989; Mann & Ward, 2001). Mann and Ward (2001) assigned par- ticipants to one of three groups; the first group was prohibited from eating a target food, the second group was encouraged to avoid it, and the third group was given no instruction related to the target food. The researchers found that in an absence of prohi- bition on eating, individuals’ thoughts about a food decreased over time. However, when dietary restraint from an appealing food was enforced or chosen, individuals experienced increased preoccupa- tion with the forbidden foods. Such preoccupation may strengthen commitment to food rules as the forbidden food becomes more tempting and salient for the individual, who may feel a need to exert more control over his or her behavior to resist consuming the off-limits food.

To date, little research has evaluated the degree to which adher- ence to food rules may contribute to disordered eating. Additionally, the current literature is limited by a lack of validated measures spe- cifically assessing adherence to food rules. This study aims to fill both voids by testing the psychometric properties of a new Food Rules Measure (FRM) in a sample of healthy female undergraduates and exploring the relationship between perfectionism, adherence to food rules, and disordered eating in this sample. Adherence to food rules is hypothesized to mediate the relationship between perfec- tionism and disordered eating. Support for this hypothesis would suggest that specific interventions targeting distorted cognitions about and commitment to following rigid food rules might be partic- ularly efficacious for treating eating pathology in highly perfectionis- tic individuals.

2. Methods

The current investigation was part of a larger study investigating the role of self- and other-compassion in body dissatisfaction (Rudat, 2010). The specific measures used for this study (described below) were included among the questionnaires that were complet- ed as a part of the parent study.

2.1. Participants

Forty-eight female undergraduate students completed the study. All students were enrolled in the Psychology Research Pool at a private uni- versity. Only participants over age 18 were enrolled in the study. The ages of participants ranged from 18 to 35 (M = 19.2, SD = 2.5). The par- ticipants were racially diverse; 66.7% identified as Caucasian, 18.8% as Asian, 8.3% as Black or African-American, 4.2% as Mixed Race or Other. Further, 10.4% of the participants identified as Hispanic or Latino. One participant did not report her race or ethnicity. This study was approved by the Emory University Institutional Review Board.

2.2. Design

The measures used for this study were included within a larger set of questionnaires that were completed at a single time point. This cross-sectional correlational design was used to provide an initial investigation of potential relationships among concurrent levels of perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and adherence to food rules. Other measures assessing depression, self-esteem, and self- and other-compassion were used to investigate the construct validity of the new measure of adherence to food rules that had been developed specifically to evaluate hypotheses for this study. As adherence to food rules was hypothesized to reflect attitudes and judgments about one's own eating, it was expected that the new measure would be moderately correlated with depression, self-esteem, and self-compassion but not significantly correlated with compassion towards others.

2.3. Measures

2.3.1. Food rules

Due to the lack of adequate measures to assess adherence to food rules, the authors developed a novel measure assessing the degree to which participants endorse the use of food rules. The Food Rules Mea- sure (FRM) is a 14-item self-report measure designed to assess the content of food rules, the frequency of rule enforcement, and the predicted consequences of breaking the rule. A team of experts, including a registered dietician and two Masters-level psychologists, collaboratively generated the items for the FRM and pilot-tested the measure to ensure its clarity and coherence. FRM items are rated on a four-point scale ranging from “Always” to “Never.” Lower scores in- dicate greater adherence to food rules. An example item from this measure is, “I feel disappointed in myself when I ‘splurge’ on a food I typically do not eat or avoid.” Reliability and validity statistics relat- ed to the FRM are presented in the Results section.

2.3.2. Perfectionism

The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale is a 45-item self-report measure that assesses perfectionism using seven-point Likert scales (Hewitt et al., 1991). The measure captures three domains of perfec- tionism: self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism. Hewitt et al. (1991) found this measure to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87),    test–retest    reliability    (0.91    and    0.86    for    self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, respectively), and concurrent validity.

2.3.3. Eating pathology

Stice's Eating Screen (SES) was used to determine current eating disorder pathology. Stice, Telch, and Rizvi (2000) found this measure to be a reliable and valid brief screening measure for eating disorders. The measure is comprised of 26 questions related to the symptoms of anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder and can be used to indi- cate the likelihood of a current diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria (Stice et al., 2000). Participants were not asked to report if they had ever been diagnosed with or received treatment for an eating disor- der, and participants were not screened out on the basis of likely eat- ing disorder diagnosis.

2.3.4. Eating-related cognitions

The Preoccupation with Eating, Weight, and Shape Scale (PEWS; Niemeier, Craighead, Pung, & Elder, 2002) is an eight-item self- report measure that was adapted from the Modifying Distressing Thoughts Questionnaire (Clark, Feldman, & Channon, 1989). It re- quires respondents to rate the percentage of the day (0–100%) they spend thinking about food/eating and about weight/shape, and also to indicate on a scale of one to six how distressing the thoughts were, how difficult they were to stop, and how much they interfered with concentration. Percentage is averaged across both domains, and the six Likert scores are averaged to provide an overall Distress score. Preliminary analyses have revealed adequate convergent and dis- criminant validity, sensitivity to change, and internal consistency (co- efficient alpha=.84;(Niemeier et al., 2002).

2.3.5. Intuitive eating

The Intuitive Eating Scale (IES; Tylka, 2006) is a 21-item question- naire that assesses three aspects of eating: unconditional permission to eat when hungry, eating for physical instead of emotional reasons, and relying on internal hunger and satiety cues when determining when to eat and how much to eat. The measure has good internal consistency    (coefficient    alpha = .89)    and    good    construct    validity, correlating strongly in the negative direction with measures of body dissatisfaction, interoceptive awareness, pressure for thinness, and thin-ideal internalization (Tylka, 2006).

2.3.6. Body dissatisfaction

Participants’ body dissatisfaction was measured by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ; Cooper, Taylor, Cooper, & Fairburn, 1987), a 34-item, self-report questionnaire that assesses body shape concerns through six-point Likert scale forced-choice answers. Items include questions such as, “Have you felt ashamed of your body?” Higher scores indicate greater body dissatisfaction. Internal consis- tency (0.97), test–retest reliability (0.88) and concurrent validity (0.66) have been shown to be satisfactory (Rosen, Jones, Ramirez, & Waxman, 1996).

2.3.7. Depression

The Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), like its predecessor the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), was constructed by selecting items that consistently discriminated between depressed and nondepressed psychiatric patients (Beck, Steer, Ball, & Ranieri, 1996; Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961; Steer, Ball, Ranieri, & Beck, 1999). The BDI-II is a 21-item multiple-choice self- report measure that assesses emotional, cognitive, motivational, and physical symptoms of depression. The coefficient alpha for the BDI- II is approximately .91, and it correlates highly with mood disorder diagnosis (Beck, Ward et al., 1996).

2.3.8. Self-esteem

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) consists of 10 items related to feelings about oneself that are answered on a four-point Likert scale ranging from “Strongly agree” to “Strongly disagree.” Total scores range from 0 to 30, with scores below 15

suggesting significantly low self-esteem. The RSES has been validated with many culturally diverse and international samples (Hatcher & Hall, 2009; Martin, Thompson, & Chan, 2006).

2.3.9. Self-compassion

The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003) was used to deter- mine levels of compassion toward the self. The 26-item, self-report questionnaire includes three factors: self-kindness, common human- ity, and mindful awareness. Items include statements such as, “I try to be understanding and patient towards those aspects of my personal- ity I don't like,” and the respondent's level of agreement is rated on a five-point Likert scale. Higher scores indicate a higher degree of self- compassion. Internal consistency (0.92), test–retest reliability (0.93), and discriminant validity are satisfactory (Neff, 2003).

2.3.10. Other-compassion

The Other-Compassion Scale (OCS) is a modified version of the Self-Compassion Scale, designed to assess compassion toward other people. The OCS was created for the parent study, which was designed in part to investigate the relationship between self- and other-compassion. The 26 items of the Self-Compassion Scale were modified to refer to others instead of the self; for example, “I try to be understanding and patient towards those aspects of other people's personality that I don't like.” Like the Self-Compassion Scale, the Other-Compassion Scale is a self-report measure that uses a five- point Likert scale. Reliability and validity of this measure have not yet been determined.

2.4. Procedure

Participants were recruited through the Introductory Psychology subject pool. Participants were told that the study was about “attitudes towards self, appearance, and others.” When participants arrived, they were given a brief verbal description of the study and signed a consent form explaining the nature of the study. Participants then completed the questionnaire packet. Prior to their departure, each participant re- ceived a debriefing form with additional information about the study and referral information for local counseling services.

2.5. Data analysis

Based on the Baron and Kenny model for testing mediational hypoth- eses, a four-step procedure for data analysis was followed (Baron & Kenny, 1986). A series of regression analyses were carried out to deter- mine the extent to which the variance in a potential mediator variable accounts for the statistical relationship between an independent variable and dependent variable(s). Mediation is demonstrated when the effect of the independent variable on a given outcome variable is attenuated or non-existent when controlling for the mediating variable. The Sobel test (Sobel, 1982) was conducted to test the significance of the mediator's impact on the relationship between the independent and de- pendent variable. An alpha level of .05 was used to determine statistical significance for all analyses. SPSS was used for all statistical analyses.

3. Results

3.1. Descriptive statistics

All 48 participants completed the required questionnaires and were included in the analyses. Table 1 displays participants’ mean scores on each of the measures.

3.2. Psychometric properties of the FRM

The FRM was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .85)    suggesting    that    the    items    create    a    coherent    measure.    In

A.J. Brown et al. / Eating Behaviors 13 (2012) 347–353    349

350    A.J. Brown et al. / Eating Behaviors 13 (2012) 347–353

Table 2

Correlations between FRM and measures related to eating pathology.

Measure    Correlation with FRM

SES IES PEWS % PEWS Distress BSQ

−.54⁎⁎ .78⁎⁎ −.59⁎⁎ −.59⁎⁎ −.69⁎⁎

FRM=Food Rules Measure. SES=Stice's Eating Scale. IES=Intuitive Eating Scale. PEWS=Preoccupation with Eating, Weight, and Shape Scale.

BSQ=Body Shape Questionnaire.

⁎⁎

order to test for construct validity, correlations were calculated between the FRM and other measures included in the parent study. Convergent validity was demonstrated by the large effect sizes of the correlations be- tween the FRM and all other measures assessing eating pathology (Table 2). Moderately strong correlations were found between the FRM and four non-eating-specific measures (Table 3): the BDI-II, RSES, SCS, and the Self-Oriented subscale of the MPS. Other-oriented perfectionism, socially oriented perfectionism, and compassion towards others were not correlated with adherence to food rules.

3.3. Mediator analyses

A series of regression analyses (Baron & Kenny, 1986) was carried out to test whether adherence to food rules acted as a mediator of the rela- tionship between perfectionism (three subscales) and the three primary indices of eating pathology, the SES, PEWS, and IES. Table 4 depicts the outcome of these statistical tests. To test the first criterion for mediation, that the independent variable affects the mediator, scores on the FRM were regressed on each of the three subscales of the MPS. The results in- dicated that adherence to food rules was significantly related to self- oriented perfectionism but not related to other-oriented or socially ori- ented perfectionism. Therefore, the subsequent steps in the mediator analyses were conducted only with self-oriented perfectionism.

To test the second criterion for mediation, that the independent variable affects the dependent variable, SES, PEWS and IES scores were regressed on MPS-Self scores. Self-oriented perfectionism was significantly related to global eating pathology (as measured by the SES), preoccupation with eating, weight, and shape (PEWS) and intu- itive eating (IES).

The third criterion for mediation is that the mediator affects the dependent variable. To test this criterion, SES, PEWS, and IES scores were each regressed on FRM scores. Results of Step 3 analyses indi- cated that the adherence to food rules was significantly related to all three eating-related outcome measures.

In order to be considered a mediating variable according to Baron and Kenny's (1986) criteria, the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable must be significantly less when controlling for the mediator than when the mediator is not controlled. To test this final criterion, SES, PEWS, and IES scores were regressed on self- oriented perfectionism, as in Step 2. In Step 4, FRM scores were entered into block 1 of the regression analysis to control for their influence on the relationship between perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms. The Sobel test was performed (http://www.people.ku.edu/~preacher/ sobel/sobel.htm) to test the strength of the mediator.

The results indicated that adherence to food rules significantly mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and all three outcome variables: global eating disorder symptoms (Sobel test statistic=2.41, p=.02), preoccupation with food and weight (Sobel test statistic=2.50, p=.01) and intuitive eating (Sobel test

pb.01.

statistic=−3.80, p=.00). Due to the strong statistical relationship between the MPS-self, FRM, and all three outcome variables, the achieved power for these regression analyses was consistently high (.96 and above). The two nonsignificant Step 1 regression analyses had lower power, which may have been related to the weaker corre- lations between the measures of other-oriented and socially pre- scribed perfectionism and the FRM, the small sample size, or both (achieved power: MPS-other=.22; MPS-social=.14).

4. Discussion

In this study, adherence to food rules mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and three indices of eating pa- thology: global eating disorder symptoms, preoccupation with eating and weight, and intuitive eating. Notably, mediation was specific to self-oriented perfectionism and was not demonstrated for other- oriented or socially oriented perfectionism. These data support the notion that disordered eating attitudes and behaviors may be largely driven by individuals’ self-imposed high standards. High levels of self- oriented perfectionism may lead individuals to rigidly interpret guide- lines for healthy eating and to adhere strictly to these guidelines. Once established, rigid food rules likely become more restrictive and prohib- itive, leading to greater preoccupation with food and eating, less intui- tive eating, and increased symptoms of disordered eating. While the current data do not address the developmental trajectory of perfection- ism, food rules, and disordered eating, they support the hypothesis that adherence to food rules may be a key mechanism by which self- oriented perfectionism leads to eating pathology.

As the first measure to specifically assess adherence to food rules, the FRM provides a promising contribution to the field of eating dis- orders assessment. In this study, the FRM showed good internal

Table 3

Correlations between FRM and non-eating-related measures.

Measure    Correlation with FRM

BDI-II    −.34⁎ RSES    .40⁎⁎ SCS    .34⁎ OCS    .06 MPS-Self    −.58⁎⁎ MPS-Other    −.23 MPS-Social    −.17

BDI-II=Beck Depression Inventory. RSES=Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SCS=Self-Compassion Scale. OCS=Other-Compassion Scale. MPS-Self=Self-Oriented Perfectionism. MPS-Other=Other-Oriented Perfectionism. MPS-Social=Socially Prescribed Perfectionism.

⁎ pb.05. ⁎⁎

Table 1

Descriptive statistics.

Possible    Observed    Mean    Standard range    range    deviation

Food Rules Measure Self-Oriented Perfectionism Other-Oriented Perfectionism Socially Prescribed Perfectionism Stice's Eating Scale Preoccupation with Eating, Weight,

and Shape Scale Intuitive Eating Scale Body Shape Questionnaire Beck Depression Inventory Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Self-Compassion Scale Other‐Compassion Scale

14–84 15–105 15–105 15–105 0–22

0–6 1–5

34–204 0–63 10–40 26–130 26–130

26–75 35–103 40–86 25–80 0–17 0–5.3

1.9–4.4 34–174 0–24

15–40 41–128 62–104

51.5    37–86 71.9    16.6 63.4    10.3 52.2    13.1

9.2    4.8 2.2    1.5

3.0    0.54 92.1    33.7 9.8    6.7

32.3    5.1 77.3    17.7 90.9    9.1

pb.01.

A.J. Brown et al. / Eating Behaviors 13 (2012) 347–353    351

Table 4

Results of mediator analyses.

R2 change    F change    P value    β    Meets criteria?

Step 1: Independent variable affects the mediator IV: MPS-self

FRM .33 IV: MPS-other

FRM .05 IV: MPS-social

22.7 .00    −.58    Yes

2.5 .12    −.23

FRM .03 Step 2: Independent variable affects the dependent variable

No; stop here No; stop here

IV: MPS-self SES .19 PEWS .31 IES .16

10.1    .00 21.0    .00 8.3    .01

.44    Yes .56    Yes −.40    Yes

−.54    Yes −.59    Yes .76    Yes

Step 3: Mediator affects the dependent variable IV: FRM

1.4 .25    −.17

SES    .29 PEWS    .35 IES    .57

Step 4: IV affects than when it is IV: MPS-self

SES .03 PEWS .07 IES .00

17.7    .00 24.4    .00 60.5    .00

the DV to a lesser degree when the mediator is controlled not

1.6 .21 5.7 .02 .32 .57

.19⁎ Yes .33⁎ Yes −.07⁎ Yes

^pb.10 compared with Step 2 value (Sobel test). ⁎

pb.05 compared with Step 2 value (Sobel test).

consistency and construct validity. The strong correlations between the FRM and other measures assessing characteristics of eating disor- ders indicate that the measure has good convergent validity and may be useful as a more specific index of this aspect of disordered eating. The FRM may also be useful in a clinical setting for the purposes of screening or treatment planning. For example, the FRM may be useful for individualizing treatment by helping to identify the specific rules that individuals adhere to and the ways in which these rules may be exacerbating or causing disordered eating behaviors.

The medium effect sizes of the correlations between the FRM and the BDI-II, SCS, and Self-Oriented subscale of the MPS also offer evi- dence of convergent validity, as depression (Casper, 1998), low self- compassion (Adams & Leary, 2007), and self-oriented perfectionism (Castro-Fornieles et al., 2007) have all been found at higher levels among individuals showing symptoms of disordered eating. The lack of significant correlation between FRM and the other-oriented and socially prescribed subscales of the MPS suggests that adherence to food rules is associated with holding oneself to high self-standards, but not seeking to achieve goals set by others and by society at large. The FRM also proved to have adequate discriminant validity, as it was not significantly correlated with measures assessing constructs for which there is no empirical evidence or theoretical basis for a rela- tionship with disordered eating (e.g., compassion for others).

4.1. Relevance for treatment

The present findings suggest that an explicit focus on changing rule-bound cognitions and behaviors may increase the efficacy of treatments for eating disorders, at least for individuals with high levels of self-oriented perfectionism. It may be helpful for therapists and dietitians to identify clients’ rigid food rules early in treatment and to work towards modifying those rules through such techniques as cognitive restructuring and exposure and response prevention. Cognitive restructuring strategies, already commonly used in cognitive- behavioral therapy for eating disorders (Fairburn et al., 2003) are easily applicable to rigid rules about food. For example, the “downward arrow” technique can be used to help clients understand what lies at the heart of their food rules, such as fear of weight gain or an aversion to appearing weak or self-indulgent. Those maladaptive cognitions can then be challenged and attenuated.

Behavioral interventions such as exposure and response preven- tion can also be used to challenge clients’ rigid adherence to food rules. In vivo exposure to rule breaking (without the option of restricting or purging) may lessen the rigidity of clients’ beliefs that rule breaking will have a negative outcome (e.g. weight gain). With repeated exposure, the rule is likely to lose its potency, allowing the client increased flexibility in both cognitions and behaviors.

4.2. Study limitations

The main limitations of this questionnaire-based study include sam- ple characteristics, aspects of study design, and the use of a newly devel- oped measure to assess adherence to food rules. This study was conducted in a single geographic location in a developed nation at an elite, private university. Further research will be needed to determine if the findings are representative of the national college population, and be- yond this, a clinical population with significant eating pathology. Further, the cross-sectional nature of the study design did not allow for analysis of the development of eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, or sub- scription to food rules. Specifically, this study did not investigate if there is an age or life stage at which these variables most often appear and in- teract. Further research will be necessary to determine if there are critical developmental periods in which food rules emerge or are more likely to exacerbate disordered eating.

As the FRM was developed by the authors for the purposes of this study, its reliability and validity can only be preliminarily suggested on the basis of the study results. Data analyses indicated that the measure had good internal consistency and correlated strongly with indicators of eating pathology and perfectionism. Further investiga- tion is needed to determine the utility of the FRM as an assessment tool for determining the extent to which adherence to food rules is problematic or interferes with response to intervention. However, the mean FRM score reported in this study can serve as an initial nor- mative value for female college undergraduates.

5. Conclusions

Rigid adherence to food rules is characteristic of many individuals with eating concerns. Perfectionism is also common in this population, and the results of this investigation suggest that adherence to food rules may be one mechanism by which perfectionistic tendencies contribute to the development and maintenance of eating disorder symptoms. Ad- herence to food rules was found to be a mediator of the relationship be- tween self-oriented perfectionism and three indicators of disordered eating in a nonclinical sample of female undergraduates. Thus, use of food rules may need to be targeted in prevention and early intervention programs designed to reduce risk factors for eating disorders. Further work is needed to confirm this finding within clinical populations. If confirmed, therapeutic interventions for eating disorders might be strengthened by individualized assessment of and attention to clients’ levels of trait perfectionism and adherence to food rules.

Role of funding sources

No external funding was provided for this study.

Contributors

Authors 1, 2, 3, and 4 were involved in designing the study. Authors 1 and 2 con- ducted all statistical analyses and wrote the manuscript collaboratively. Authors 2 and 3 were directly involved in data collection. All authors contributed to and have ap- proved the final manuscript.

Conflict of interest All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

352    A.J. Brown et al. / Eating Behaviors 13 (2012) 347–353 Appendix A.

Food Rules Measure

Directions for participants: For each item, please check the answer that best characterizes your beliefs or behaviors. Do you have any dietary restrictions based on a medical condition or food allergy?

□ Yes    □ No Briefly describe: ____________________________________

1. I choose to eat what I consider to be healthy foods when those foods are available. □ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never

2. I don't eat at certain times during the day because I believe those times are not helpful for my body's metabolism (e.g. after 7 p.m. or first thing in the morning). □ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never

3. I avoid certain foods or food groups for reasons other than an allergy or dislike of the taste or texture. □ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never

4. I tend to snack between meals. □ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never

5. I eat what I believe to be the right portion size, even when it's not satisfying. □ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never

6. I feel disappointed in myself when I “splurge” on a food I typically do not eat or avoid. □ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never

7. I feel the need to follow food rules or diet plans that dictate what, when, and/or how much to eat. □ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never

8. I avoid eating “junk food” and sweets because they are not good choices. □ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never

9. I feel comfortable eating any food in all locations with anyone, including at home, in a restaurant, and at social functions. □ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never

10. I feel I need to compensate, such as through exercise or eating less at another time, when I eat certain foods or a certain amount of food.

□ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never 11. I find myself preoccupied with thoughts about food and what to eat or not eat.

□ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never 12. I eat exactly what I want, regardless of what kind or quantity of food is available, or what time of day it is.

□ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never 13. I avoid foods high in carbohydrates, fat, and/or calories.

□ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never 14. I avoid thinking of foods as either “good” or “bad” based on their nutritional content.

□ Always    □ Usually    □ Often    □ Sometimes    □ Rarely    □ Never

References

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Hatcher, J., & Hall, L. A. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale in African American single mothers. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 30(2), 70–77, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01612840802595113 [pii]908649643.

Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Concep- tualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personal- ity and Social Psychology, 60(3), 456–470.

Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., Besser, A., Sherry, S. B., & McGee, B. (2003). Perfectionism is multidimensional: A reply to Shafran, Cooper and Fairburn. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41(10), 1221–1236 doi: S0005796703000214 [pii].

Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., Turnbull-Donovan, W., & Mikail, S. F. (1991). The multi- dimensional perfectionism scale: Reliability, validity, and psychometric properties in psychiatric samples. Psychological Assessment, 3(3), 464–468.

Klein, D. A., & Walsh, B. T. (2003). Eating disorders. International Review of Psychia- try, 15(3), 205–216 doi: 10.1080/0954026031000136839AT3JFTPNVB4RXW2K [pii].

Lingswiler, V. M., Crowther, J. H., & Stephens, M. A. P. (1989). Affective and cognitive antecedents to eating episodes in bulimia and binge eating. The International Jour- nal of Eating Disorders, 8, 533–539.

Mann, T., & Ward, A. (2001). Forbidden fruit: Does thinking about a prohibited food lead to its consumption? The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29(3), 319–327, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.1025 [pii].

Martin, C. R., Thompson, D. R., & Chan, D. S. (2006). An examination of the psychomet- ric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in Chinese acute coro- nary syndrome (ACS) patients. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 11(4), 507–521, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548500500407367 [pii]Q4177N88048X2145.

Mathes, W. F., Brownley, K. A., Mo, X., & Bulik, C. M. (2009). The biology of binge eating. Appetite, 52(3), 545–553, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2009.03.005 [pii] S0195-6663(09)00050-6.

Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223–250.

Niemeier, H. M., Craighead, L. W., Pung, M. A., & Elder, K. A. (2002). Reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the Preoccupation with Eating, Weight, and Shape scale. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Association of the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Reno, NV.

Polivy, J. (1996). Psychological consequences of food restriction. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96(6), 589–592, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(96) 00161-7 quiz 593–584, [pii]S0002-8223(96)00161-7.

Rosen, J. C., Jones, A., Ramirez, E., & Waxman, S. (1996). Body Shape Questionnaire: Stud- ies of validity and reliability. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20(3),

315–319 doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199611)20:3b315::AID-EAT11>3.0.CO;2-Z

[pii]. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton

University Press. Rudat, D. A. (2010). The relationship of self- and other-compassion with body dissatisfac-

tion. Unpublished Master's thesis. Emory University. Shafran, R., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. G. (2002). Clinical perfectionism: A cognitive–

behavioural analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(7), 773–791. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equa- tion models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.), Sociological Methodology 1982 (pp. 290–312). Wash-

ington, D.C.: American Sociological Association. Steer, R. A., Ball, R., Ranieri, W. F., & Beck, A. T. (1999). Dimensions of the Beck Depression

Inventory-II in clinically depressed outpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 117–128    doi:    10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199901)55:1 b 117::AID-JCLP12 > 3.0.CO;2-A [pii].

Stice, E., Telch, C. F., & Rizvi, S. L. (2000). Development and validation of the Eating Dis- order Diagnostic Scale: A brief self-report measure of anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder. Psychological Assessment, 12(2), 123–131.

Tylka, T. L. (2006). Development and psychometric evaluation of a measure of intuitive eating. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 226–240.

Our Health, Our Well Being - Affects Abundance or Scarcity

Greetings! 

I hope this message finds you super happy and well. Machel and I have been having so much fun working with different people in our workshops. We are combining Machel's training with Equine Assisted Learning (EAL) and my training as an Intuitive Eating Health counselor.

So what do horses and health have in common you might ask? 

Horses are the perfect animal to assist us and allow us to get authentically clear about our thoughts, beliefs, values and habits that may or MAY NOT be serving us. I've heard Machel talk about this work when asked, why horses? Why not a cat, dog, a hamster or even a lizard? While we can't deny all animals mirror us, a horse in it’s presence and size makes our actions or inactions undeniable. You just can't NOT pay attention to what they are reflecting back.  All the exercises we do with the horses are on the ground. Each exercise is designed to assist you in mind, body or spirit discoveries. Your experience or inexperience with the horse makes no difference in these workshops. This kind of work is perfect for EVERYONE who is willing to look within – self-awareness. This herd of horses is quite special - they enjoy the work, find people enjoyable, and partner willingly in our self discoveries. 

Adding the Intuitive Health perspective, some might say, "You are what you eat." I like to go beyond this phrase and add you are not only what you eat, but how you eat it and WHY are you eating the particular food you are eating. This is more of a direct reflection of you and what is going on in your life. Our bodies mirror back through health or disease what we are promoting or ignoring. Our overall health is a basis in which we all work from, “how we feel affects the quality of our lives-success or failure”. 

If I have fear in general or scarcity beliefs around food, money and abundance this will show itself in many ways. Having lots of money, nice cars, great relationships and all the delicious food we eat also cannot be enjoyed FULLY without our health or a least the understanding of where fear based beliefs are coming from. A healthy mind and body is fundamental to our well-being. Again, it's more about the "How" and the "Why," why do I turn to sugar when I'm stressed, "why" do I continue to restrict, diet, cleanse, when it's not working? Why do I believe my body doesn't deserve love or to be loved RIGHT NOW exactly where I am. Looking at the "how" and the "why" is a great start. Combining EAL (equine assisted learning) and Intuitive eating and health allows for many breakthroughs.

We are the only ones that can re-connect with ourselves and others. We all want to be better, to be that highest vision of ourselves. That may include being a better Boss, Mom, Dad, Daughter, Son or Partner, but looking deeper into you IS the starting point. We only have control of ourselves and taking that personal responsibility is empowering. 

If you want to go deeper, if you want to connect and get a little closer to YOU, that pure, higher self - please join us for this all day workshop on Saturday July 23rd, 2016 from 8:30am-5pm. Click here for more details and to sign up directly from my website. Be sure to check out some of the discounts too! 

Love Up On Your Self with Clean, Ethical & Organic Products from NYRO
 

What Intuitive Health Means to Me

Greetings Friends! 

So I've been thinking about Intuition and what Intuitive Health means to me. I've also been looking into other peoples experiences that have been documenting their journeys of health and using Intuitive Eating or simply giving up diet mentality as a means to come to peace with their health and their bodies.

The story of Brittany Gibbins in "Fat Girl Walking Sex, Food, Love, and Being Comfortable in Your Skin...Every Inch Of It" with her hilarious spin on some similar situations I/we can relate to I'm sure, addressed how important it is to truly feel good in your skin and the empowerment that comes from being comfortable in your body RIGHT NOW, AS IS! Brittany has totally given up the diet mentality and her story in doing that is great to hear. Listening to Kelsey Miller's story in her book "Big Girl, How I Gave Up Dieting & Got A Life" was inspiring too, Kelsey goes into detail about her experience of self acceptance and using the method of Intuitive Eating all the while sharing her journey with Intuitive Eating in the column she writes for. Check out her column at The Anti Diet Project here.  Kelsey is also a very witty and funny writer, I had many LOL moments with both books. Let me know what you think if you check out either of their books I'd love to hear about it! 

It made me remember a time when I made a dinner. This dinner was for my boyfriend at the time, his ex-wife and their two children who were all visiting for a holiday. While it was all fine and dandy...well I will admit, meeting them all for the first time was a bit nerve racking. At the time of their visit I wasn't officially living with him in his home yet but I might as well have been, I was there all the time and it felt very much like "our" home. Our home that was now invaded by a family of three and it was my partners family at that! The only thing to make this experience even a little more uncomfortable is to witness your boyfriends ex-wife do the following....

Well first off one thing you need to know is that the mom/ex-wife and two children spoke a different language than my own so I also couldn't communicate with them very well. Which made for lots of fun gesturing, faces & relying heavily on body language. 

The two boys were probably around nine years old at the time. The younger "little" brother was already physically bigger than his older brother. When the youngest reached for a second helping I saw the mom give him a face, you know "the look" and then say something quickly in their language which in turn made him immediately look sad and diminished. This little boy crumpled up in way that broke my heart. What he did next though, I bet a few of us can relate to. I think sensing my total discomfort and his youngest child's embarrassment, my boyfriend said something nice and in an upbeat tone (again me missing the whole conversation here) while the youngest had stopped reaching for the second helping and paused, after his dad made the more pleasant comment, the little boy got this kind of "f-you, I'm going for it look on his face" shot it quickly at his mom and then he went for the second helping anyway. (At least he liked my food! Yay!)

What I know and what I really remember is that heart drop feeling I felt in my body. Because the interaction was in a language I couldn't communicate in I also felt helpless, sad and angry for this little boy. To see the body language and to feel my heart drop into my stomach was very real. This kind of judgment and behavior never feels good and I would also say for the majority of folks triggers the exact response this little boy exhibited. That being "Ow, that hurt...and fuck you I'm not only going to have seconds I'm having double the amount now!"

I felt this same heart drop feeling when a fellow yoga teacher gestured about a 4-foot distance wide space with their hands and said that's how big my hips are then went on to tell me my hips are to big and dis-proportionate to my body. Insert heart drop. 

I watched that same yoga teacher witness two others greeting one another after it had been some time since the two saw each other. Person 1 said, "Oh my god, 'person 2' you look amazing!" Then person 2 said, "Thank you so much, I feel really good too!" Smiles and hugs all around until rude yoga instructor (yes of all people to be rude) interrupted and said "No, no your belly looks very big though...." or something of that nature. Again insert heart drop and WTF? Going by the looks on person 1 & 2's face I bet their hearts dropped into their stomachs too. 

I've been asked if I was pregnant a couple times actually, one of the times when I was in my early 20's, in a bar, with a cocktail in hand! Ok, no judgement (little judgment..) seriously! (fyi, I did speak up to that guy in that specific situation) I've watched a young girl ask a non-pregnant women if she is pregnant. I've seen people compliment others with super positive "You look great, you're losing a lot weight!" "You've lost a lot of weight" comments and people look and I'm pretty sure feel just as awkward as if someone just asked if you are pregnant when you are NOT! 

Now this is not a bitch/vent session about asshole yoga teachers or asshole people in general being assholes! What I did learn from these experiences and there have been more too, is that this all went down in English, meaning the language I speak and I didn't SPEAK UP in most cases. I didn't speak up on behalf of myself or others in some of the situations. I also FELT the wrongness deep down. I know, WE know when something doesn't feel right. THIS IS INTUITION! Keeping a strong connection with our intuition is also about speaking up and DEFENDING IT when needed and when we feel it. (Insert heart drop feeling=say something, DO SOMETHING about it!)

We can allow others to treat us and speak to us in a way that is either over looked and slides by or we can educate the people around us how to speak to us and what's okay and acceptable to talk to ME about. They are speaking up and most likely in many of these situations people are trying to be kind, helpful, inquisitive or they may feel actual concern. But here it is folks-TALKING ABOUT ANYONE ELSES BODY OTHER IS UN-ACCEPTABLE. PERIOD. 

I'm happy to report that I have had two more recent success stories where I did speak up. One of the times was when I was with someone who commented on how big this random person walking down the street, appeared to them. I quickly said something like "you know that is really unfair to comment on anybody's body, good or bad. We don't know their story. I mean is it really okay to make any comments about anybody else's body?" Which quickly got a "I guess that's true...." reply. 

The second time was when my dear sweet mother was sharing a comment from my dear sweet little bother which was basically about leggings and if you have to buy a size XL or bigger, then you shouldn't be buying them kinda comment.... Since this is my own family I will say,  my response wasn't as  "dear & sweet" as I would of liked it to be BUT at least I spoke up and said SOMETHING. This to me feels better than saying nothing at all. Because I think it's important that not only I speak up for myself but that my mother speaks up too!

What I've also realized is for all of us that have spoken up and said something that is critical, judgmental or just straight up rude. Which I am guilty of too. Can mean this was said to us or has been learned as a way to speak to others. We can re-learn, we can continue to educate ourselves and others how to speak up and simply how to speak with more compassion, empathy and in a more heart centered way. We can also speak directly to someone while still being positive with a healthy outcome in mind. 

If you are willing to share and I know it may feel vulnerable to share this. But in the comments below I'd love to hear about your "heart drop" moment(s) or a time when you just knew something didn't feel right because your body told you. 

Now some of you may be thinking, So how do we do this? What does it look like? What is going on with us that maybe makes us speak out in a positive or even NOT so positive way? 

If you'd like to explore this more please join Machel Jordan and myself, in our next workshop, happening here in the Santa Fe area. The Connect To Your Inner Wisdom Workshop gives you a fun and positive environment to look at and go a little deeper with yourself. I mean you get to be around the most amazing heard of horses you will ever meet, how cool is that!?

Join us July 24th, 8:30am-5pm for an all day workshop. You can register right here on my website. Hope to see you and work with you soon! 

Lots of love, 

kaytea





 

May 28, 2016

Greetings Friends! 

I hope this message finds you super happy, well and enjoying your Memorial Day Weekend. 

I had an amazing workshop this past weekend launching my first collaboration with Machel Jordan of Reflect Reinvent. We got to work with an amazing group of women. It's always so powerful to witness women coming together to gain great insights working on themselves, life and the choices we make. Of course another magical part is working with the horses whose reflections our always true. If you haven't checked out Machel's website and the work she does please do! We will be offering our next workshop on June 12th check out details here. Spots are limited and this workshop is offered at a very special discounted rate. 

Some of you may be curious "what is this Intuitive Eating thing all about?" Of course the best starting place is reading the book or listening to the book on audible...but for those of you that want to jump right in, to take the Intuitive Eating Quiz you will need a pen and paper. 

This quiz will assess whether you are an Intuitive Eater, or perhaps where you might need some work. It is adapted from Tracy Tylka's research on Tribole & Resch's model of Intuitive Eating. This assessment was validated for use with both men and women. 

Directions: The following statements are grouped into the three core characteristics of Intuitive Eaters. Answer yes or no for each statement. If you are unsure of how to respond, consider if the description usually applies to you-is it mostly "yes" or "no"?

Section 1. Unconditional Permission to Eat

  1. I try to avoid certain foods high in fat, carbs or calories. 
  2. If I am craving a certain food, I don't allow myself to have it. 
  3. i get mad at myself for eating something unhealthy. 
  4. I have forbidden foods that i don't allow myself to eat. 
  5. I don't allow myself to eat what food i desire at the moment.
  6. I follow eating rules or diet plans that dictate what, when and/or how to eat. 

Section 2. Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons

  1. I find myself eating when I'm feeling emotional (anxious, sad, depressed), even when I'm not physically hungry. 
  2. I find myself eating when I am lonely, even when I'm not physically hungry. 
  3. I use food to help me sooth my negative emotions. 
  4. I find myself eating when I am stressed out, even when I'm not physically hungry. 
  5. I am able to cope with my negative emotions (i.e. anxiety and sadness) without turning to food/alcohol for comfort. 
  6. When I am bored, I eat just for something to do. 
  7. When I am lonely, I turn to food for comfort. 
  8. I have difficulty finding ways to cope with stress and anxiety, other than by eating.

For each "yes" statement answered in sections 1-2 indicates an area that likely needs some work or attention. 

Section 3. Reliance on Internal Hunger/Satiety Cues (Trust)

  1. I trust my body to tell me when to eat. 
  2. I trust my body to tell me what to eat. 
  3. I trust my body to tell me how much to eat. 
  4. I rely on my hunger signals to tell me when to eat. 
  5. I rely on my fullness (satiety) signals to tell me when to stop eating. 
  6. I trust my body when to stop eating. 

Section 4. Body-Food Choice Congruence

  1. Most of the time, I desire to eat nutritious foods. 
  2. I mostly eat foods that make my body perform efficiently (well). 
  3. I mostly eat foods that give my body energy and stamina. 

For each "no" statement answered in sections 3-4 indicates an area that likely needs some work or attention. 

  • Source
  • 1. Tylka, Tracy L. 2006. Development and psychometric evaluation of a measure of intuitive eating. Journal of Counseling Psychology 53(2), Apr: 226-240
  • 2. Tylka, Tracy L. 2013. A psychometric evaluation of the Intuitive Eating Scale with college men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Jan;60(1):137-53
  • 3. Tribole E. & Resch E. 2012. Intuitive Eating 3rd ed St.Martin's Press, NY:NY

If anyone would like to learn more or work with me one on one please contact me here or give me a call. Machel and I also have our day long workshop and a 3-Day Retreat planned too. All wonderful avenues to develop yourself and your intuition! 

 

September Happenings!

September 2015

Greeting Friends! 

Happy Fall! We've had several cool days and even cooler nights here in New Mexico. I think I'm finally starting to embrace Fall and say goodbye to Summer...I think. 

It's been a busy start to September, ALREADY! I'm back in the schools teaching for IMPACT, our violence prevention classes are taught to ALL 8th graders in the public schools. We also work with other grades and ages.  If you'd like to take a class or make sure we are in your child's school, message me or see our schedule here

Also in the mix I offered Intuitive Lunches every Monday in August. There will be only one Intuitive Lunch in September on the 28th in the community room at the Coop. Click here for more details. 
I was so excited to see an article share about more intuitive eaters, enjoy this article here! 

Last month I got to do a wonderful training with locally based The Alchemy of Aesthetics it's been such a wonderful addition to my life having NYRO products to use and share. The Alchemy of Aesthetics uses NYRO products but they also formulate the perfect combination of product and ingredients for a customized facial, book an appointment here! 


Treating myself and taking care of myself with these wonderful products has amped up my personal self-care rituals and also my passion for empowering people to use clean products and buy smart by supporting ethical companies. I'm looking forward to offering complimentary mini facials at local businesses that also want to support organic and ethical companies. Contact me if you'd like to offer a customer appreciation day and feature these great products in your store! Check out some of the great offers happening this month, listed below!

Have a great September! 
xokaytea


 



At NYRO We've got some great deals this month!  
Gift Sets           Mother and Baby      

September Offerings!   

 %15 Off Frankincense Collections!



Salon Owners            Body Workers     







 


 

 


 

Free From Emotional Eating...The Journey Begins!

August 2015
 

Greeting Friends! 

Do you feel like your are at your ideal health, weight, size? I already know some of you have started the journey of acceptance and NOT allowing people, movies or magazines tell you what you "should" look like. Some of you have even thrown out your scale! Yes!

Because you realize your overall well being & vibrant life shouldn't be dictated by a number and it's more about how you feel anyway!  

After attending Geneen Roth's workshop in May, author of many wonderful books, my favorite being Women, Food and God. I also refer to Geneen as the emotional eating guru! I've been going deeper and really trying to put her "practice" into practice. It's not been totally easy, I will admit. But I also know it's wiser to choose the less traveled, difficult path. 

Geneen quotes in Women, Food and God, "Zen master Shunryu Suzuki Roshi said that enlightenment was following one thing all the way to the end, and I soon suspected that if I tracked the impulse to eat when I wasn't hungry to its core, I'd find every single thing I believed about loving, living and dying right there, in that moment. Which-following the relationship with food to the end-pretty much describes how I've spent the last thirty-two years"

This practice of inquiry has me totally intrigued. I've known that I want to live a happy healthy life but also not restrict myself to NEVER enjoying a dessert or celebrating with a friend and having a glass of wine, etc. I'm a "Never say Never!" kinda person, so the "diets" or life of restricting.."I never eat sugar, I never let a (simple) carb pass my lips, I never eat grains, nightshades, ice-cream, all food that have a blue hue....just doesn't work for me. ;)

It's also the concept of: IT'S NOT WHAT YOU EAT BUT HOW YOU EAT IT!!! Now this resonates with me to my core. I'm like the majority of the estimated 45 million people in the United States that have dieted, restricted, cleansed and (lets be honest) then binged! Restricting and making yourself miserable is only setting yourself up for a binge/failure later. Did it work? Do you still struggle? Are you looking for the next AMAZING 30-day diet!? STOP IT! Start living now. 

Living a life with out diets is so much more like LIVING! It's the life I know I want to live. After hosting several intuitive lunches now, I can't express how grateful I am for the people who have come to those lunches and gathered with me to do the work! It's a great refresher for me too, I feel more grounded, connected with myself and charged for the rest of the day and week ahead. 

If you live in the Santa Fe area please see my facebook pagefor current and updated invites for these lunches or join myIntuitive Lunch Meetup group. If you'd like to host one or you think your office, business, co-workers, etc would like an Intuitive lunch session to come to your place of work, please lets chat. 

Taking the time to practice "HOW" you eat, is one of the most profound and healthy practices we can ALL do. I look forward to hearing from you or better yet, seeing some of you at an upcoming Intuitive Lunch. 

In health!

xokaytea



At NYRO We've got some great deals this month too!  
 
August Offerings!







 

Women Food and God. Well let's start with Lunch!

Greetings Friends! 

It feels great to get out a newsletter again! It's been months! I'm sure for many of you also, it's been a busy few months too! I'm so happy to share with you what has been going on and what's to come. 

I'm still loving and happily sharing the clean, organic products ofNeal's Yard Remedies Organics! I'm offering some great specials this month too. If you order ANYTHING from my website you automatically will be entered in a drawing for a new Bee Lovely Body Butter. Good for you, the environment and the BEES!
June is the month of the Rose and there are some great dealspromoting the organic Wild Rose line, some wonderful products. Great deals for dads too, shop now to get your fathers day gifts on time! 

Early last month I got the wonderful opportunity to work with and explore the teachings of a women I've admired in the health industry for many years. Geneen Roth is the author of many books, Women Food and God and When Food is Love being two of her very popular reads. Spending a week in the beautiful mountains in California was amazing and so powerful. It inspired me to really keep up the work of intuitive eating and share this with my community. 

If you are sick of dieting and want to dial into yourself, your relationship with food and meet others with the same intention this is for you!
I will be hosting intuitive lunches starting on Mondays at noon. The first lunch will start on June 15th if you'd like to join me for this eating meditation and introduction to intuitive eating and Geneen's work, please message me for the details. 
These lunches will be potluck style, meaning you bring your own lunch, that's it! Already I've heard from people that have offered their homes as a possible meeting location and if any of my Santa Fe community knows of a great space (calm, nourishing, clean, supportive) or would like to host a lunch please let me know! Space is limited so reserve your spot now! 

"our relationship to food is an exact microcosm of our relationship to life itself. I believe we are walking, talking expressions of our deepest convictions; everything we believe about love, fear, transformation and God is revealed in how, when and what we eat.... God-however we define him or her--is on our plates." Geneen Roth, from Women Food and God

Come! Explore and lets travel this journey together! 

In love! 

xokaytea